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Pulse fortified whole wheat bread: A review on dough rheology, bread quality, and sensory properties

The increase in the consumption of pulses can perform a key role in preventing protein deficiency among people specifically in developing countries. The fortification of whole wheat bread with pulses is an efficient approach to boost the nutritional profile of bread as protein, starches, dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and phytochemicals are all abundant in pulses. The optimum ratio of the pulse to whole wheat flour is necessary to determine for producing bread with good quality, sensory attributes, and handling properties. This review investigated the impact of the pulse addition on the whole wheat dough rheology, bread quality, and sensory characteristics, with a particular focus on dough stability, elasticity, strength, and bread volume. The improvement in the nutritional value as well as the negative impact of pulses on whole-wheat bread was also reviewed. The research gaps in pulse supplemented whole grains bread were identified, and further study directions were recommended. Fortification of whole wheat bread with pulses produced affordable bread with a balanced diet for all classes of people. The addition of a higher level of pulses develops a weak gluten structure, which negatively affects dough stability, strength, elasticity, and handling properties. The volume of bread also decreased, and the off-flavor compound produced at a higher level of pulse fortification. The addition of additives and prior processing of pulses not only promote the nutritional value but also produce bread with better dough stability, bread volume, and sensory score.

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Competing interests: No competing interests were disclosed.

Grant information: The author(s) declared that no grants were involved in supporting this work.

Copyright: © 2022 Hoque M et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

How to cite: Hoque M, Biswas R, Alam M et al. Pulse fortified whole wheat bread: A review on dough rheology, bread quality, and sensory properties [version 1; peer review: awaiting peer review]. F1000Research 2022, 11:536 (https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.113421.1)
First published: 18 May 2022, 11:536 (https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.113421.1)
Latest published: 18 May 2022, 11:536 (https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.113421.1)